By Javier Jiménez
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Extra resources for An introduction to turbulence
Some organic matter will be washed downstream, although this will be limited. This is a heterotrophic system with the energy coming largely from outside the stream. It is a net importer of material and energy. This region can be classified as having a low production (P):respiration (R) ratio (P/R < 1) or a low phototrophiciheterotrophic ratio. 2 MIDLAND (UNSHADED) REGION In this section the river is wider and less shaded resulting in a higher light penetration. This gives a high growth of microalgae on submerged objects, including epiphytes on larger plants and macrophytes.
Biologically animals and plants are always using oxygen and so are always increasing the oxygen deficit. Some inorganic substances, such as sulphite (SO3"), sulphide (S^~) and iron (Fe^^), take part in chemical reactions which also consume oxygen, thereby increasing the deficit. 4 Diurnal variation of dissolved oxygen in rivers due to eutrophication. 3) is shown. 6 • 45 SUSPENDED SOLIDS The type and concentration of suspended solids controls the turbidity and transparency of water. Suspended solids are insoluble particles, or soluble particles, too large to dissolve quickly, which are too small to settle out of suspension under the prevailing turbulence and temperature.
3 shows the origin of a number of common elements in a small catchment in the US. It shows that apart from nitrogen, which is utilized by soil micro-organisms, a significant portion of the elements in water are derived from weathered parent rock. The discharge rate in rivers is governed by many factors. For example, trees can have a significant effect on stream flow due to high water demand from growth and water loss via evapotranspiration. So when trees are either planted or cut down stream flow may be reduced or increased, respectively.
An introduction to turbulence by Javier Jiménez