By Wynell Graves
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Ethanol fuel mixtures Hydrated ethanol × gasoline type C price table for use in Brazil To avoid engine stall due to "slugs" of water in the fuel lines interrupting fuel flow, the fuel must exist as a single phase. The fraction of water that an ethanol-gasoline fuel can contain without phase separation increases with the percentage of ethanol. This shows, for example, that E30 can have up to about 2% water. If there is more than about 71% ethanol, the remainder can be any proportion of water or gasoline and phase separation will not occur.
While ethanol and methanol have lower energy densities than butanol, their higher octane number allows for greater compression ratio and efficiency. Higher combustion engine efficiency allows for lesser greenhouse gas emissions per unit motive energy extracted. • Butanol is toxic at a rate of 20g per liter and may need to undergo Tier 1 and Tier 2 health effects testing before being permitted as a primary fuel by the EPA. Possible butanol fuel mixtures Standards for the blending of ethanol and methanol in gasoline exist in many countries, including the EU, the US and Brazil.
The kinematic viscosity of butanol is several times higher than that of gasoline and about as viscous as high quality diesel fuel. Heat of vaporization The fuel in an engine has to be vaporized before it will burn. Insufficient vaporization is a known problem with alcohol fuels during cold starts in cold weather. As the heat of vaporization of butanol is less than half of that of ethanol, an engine running on butanol should be easier to start in cold weather than one running on ethanol or methanol.
Alternative Energy by Wynell Graves