By Lorenzo Magnani
This quantity explores abductive cognition, a huge yet, no less than until eventually the 3rd area of the final century, overlooked subject in cognition. The publication goals at expanding wisdom approximately inventive and specialist inferences. The research of those high-levelmethods of abductive reasoning is positioned on the crossroads of philosophy, good judgment, epistemology, synthetic intelligence, neuroscience, cognitive psychology, animal cognition and evolutionary theories; that's, on the center of cognitive technology. Philosophers of technology within the 20th century have regularly extraordinary among the inferential techniques energetic within the common sense of discovery and those lively within the common sense of justification. such a lot have concluded that no common sense of inventive procedures exists and, in addition, rational version of discovery is most unlikely. in brief, medical artistic inferences are irrational and there's no “reasoning” to hypotheses. however, a little research within the zone of man-made intelligence has proven that equipment for discovery can be chanced on which are computationally enough for rediscovering – or researching for the 1st time – empirical or theoretical legislation and theorems.
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Extra resources for Abductive Cognition: The Epistemological and Eco-Cognitive Dimensions of Hypothetical Reasoning
1 Creative and selective abduction [Lukasiewicz, 1970] makes clear, “Reasoning which starts from reasons and looks for consequences is called deduction; that which starts from consequences and looks for reasons is called reduction”. 14 There are two main epistemological meanings of the word abduction [Magnani, 1988; Magnani, 1991; Magnani, 2001b]: 1) abduction that only generates “plausible”15 hypotheses (“selective” or “creative”) and 2) abduction considered as inference “to the best explanation”, which also evaluates hypotheses (cf.
We have now to notice some limitations of the formal models in accounting for other kinds of inconsistencies embedded in many reasoning tasks. This kind of sentential frameworks exclusively deals with selective abduction (diagnostic reasoning)38 and relates to the idea of preserving consistency. Exclusively considering the sentential view of abduction does not enable us to say much about creative processes in science, and, therefore, about the nomological and most interesting creative aspects of abduction.
15 All these distinctions need to be exemplified. To describe how the three inferences operate, it is useful to start with a very simple example dealing with diagnostic reasoning and illustrated (as Peirce initially did),25 in syllogistic terms: 1. If a patient is affected by a pneumonia, his/her level of white blood cells is increased. 2. John is affected by a pneumonia. 3. John’s level of white blood cells is increased. (This syllogism is known as Barbara). By deduction we can infer (3) from (1) and (2).
Abductive Cognition: The Epistemological and Eco-Cognitive Dimensions of Hypothetical Reasoning by Lorenzo Magnani